R Project for Statistical Computing


R is a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics

R includes

  • efficient data handling, storage, and linear algebra,
  • a large collection of tools for data analysis and machine learning,
  • graphical facilities for display either on-screen or on hardcopy, and
  • a programming language which includes conditionals, loops, user-defined recursive functions and input and output facilities.

The term “environment” is intended to characterize R as a fully planned and coherent system, rather than an incremental accretion of very specific and inflexible tools, as is frequently the case with other data analysis software.

R is designed around a true programming language, and it allows users to add new functions. Much of the R system is itself written in the R programming language, which makes it easy for users to follow the algorithmic choices made. For computationally-intensive tasks, C, C++ and Fortran code can be linked and called at run time. Advanced users can write C code to manipulate R objects directly.

Many users think of R as a statistics system. We prefer to think of it of an environment within which statistical techniques are implemented. R can be easily extended via packages. There are about eight recommended packages which are supplied with the standard R distribution, and many thousands more are available through the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).

Primary Open Source License: GNU General Public License version 2.0 (GPL-2.0)

Programming Languages:

  • r
  • c++
  • c
  • fortran


  • machine learning
  • data visualization
  • statistics
  • data science